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The premise is the sharing of knowledge among the scientific community, society, and business, thus enabling the expansion of knowledge and the impact of science on society. It translates, for example, into making data and publications freely available, accelerating the democratization of science, and the development of products, services, and innovation practices.
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Creativity is a precondition for innovation. Creativity is the process by which new ideas are generated and produced, while innovation is the process by which these ideas are implemented, according to Charles Landry and Franco Bianchini. In the context of the creative industries, only those who can generate economic or social value with that talent are creative.
Diffusion of innovations
A term coined by Everett Rogers: “Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels, over a certain period of time, among members of a social system” (Rogers, 2003, p. 5).
“Diffusion is the process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system”.
ROGERS, Everett M. (2003) Diffusion of innovations. 5ed. New York: Free Press.
Innovation and innovation typologies
The concept of innovation has been changing over the past 30 years, since it slowly began to enter the agendas of all countries, markets, and subject areas. Most definitions are still based on Joseph Schumpeter‘s (1934) view that defined innovations as “new combinations”, that is, incremental (small) or radical (disruptive) changes with an impact on society. According to different contexts, innovation has been related to the process of creating something new, creative activity, changes in society, and commercialization of a new product or a process(Godin, 2012).
Definition of innovation according to OECD – Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
“An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organizational method in business practices, workplace organization or external relations.”
Expression created in 2003 by Henry Chesbrough to name a new model of innovation for companies. The UC Berkeley professor showed that useful knowledge was no longer concentrated in large organizations, so it would be necessary to look beyond their borders and promote collaboration between companies, citizens, and public institutions to foster innovation.
Responsible innovation and research
It is a process that takes into account the overall impact of research and innovation in order to avoid negative effects and barriers to dissemination. The goal is to help ensure that the social and economic benefits of research and innovation are fully realized.
Responsible innovation is a process that takes the wider impacts of research and innovation into account. It aims to ensure that unintended negative impacts are avoided, that barriers to dissemination, adoption and diffusion of research and innovation are reduced, and that the positive societal and economic benefits of research and innovation are fully realised. (UK Research and Innovation)
Social innovation refers to new ideas or the improvement of existing ones for the benefit of specific communities or groups or society in general. In the context of media innovation, social innovation is often used in the context of innovative strategies to engage audiences.
Sustainable innovation is an innovation process that takes into account economic, environmental and social variables, i.e. the impact on the environment, the quality of life of society, and the economic viability of the project or institution.
Innovation policy is the interface between research, technological development policy, and industrial policy, with the goal of creating a framework for bringing ideas to market, as defined by the European Union.